Jalandhar, previously known as Jullundur, is an ancient city in Jalandhar District in the state of Punjab, India. It was the capital of Trigarttas (people living in the "land between three rivers": Ravi, Beas and Sutlej) in the times of Mahabharata war. It has an urban population of almost a million, and another million live in the rural areas outside the city.
Jalandhar is located at 31.33° N 75.58° E. It has an average elevation of 229 metres (751 feet). The city is located almost 375 km from Delhi, 142 km from Chandigarh and about 90 km from Amritsar. Jalandhar is named after Jalandhara, a demon king who lived in water as his name suggests Jal (water) and andhar (in). It was the capital of Punjab until 1953, when it was replaced by Chandigarh. Others say Jalandhar is derived from the fact that it is located between two rivers Jal and Andhar. During British occupation it was called Jullundur.
The earliest historical mention of Jalandhar occurs in the reign of Kanishka, the Kushan King of northern India in whose time, a council of Buddhist theologians was held near Jalandhar about 100 AD to collect and arrange the sacred writings of Buddhism and to bring about reconciliation between its various sects. This makes Jalandhar along with Multan the oldest surviving city of the Punjab region.
In the 7th Century, when the famous Chinese traveller and pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited India during the reign of Harsha Vardhana, the Kingdom of Jalandhara or Trigartta was under the rule of Raja Utito (whom Alexender Cunningham identifies with the Rajput Raja Attar Chandra). The kingdom was said to have extended 167 miles (269 km) from east to west and 133 miles (214 km) from north to south, thus including the hill states of Chamba, Mandi and Suket (Himachal Pradesh) and Satadru or Sirhind in the plains. Raja Utito was a tributary of Harsh Vardhana. The Rajput Rajas appear to have continued to rule over the country right up to the 12th century, with occasional interruptions, but their capital was Jalandhar and Kangra formed an important stronghold.
By Raod : Jalandhar is located on the intensively irrigated plain between the Beas and Sutlej rivers. The city has major road and rail connections. It is at a distance of 350 Kms from Delhi on Delhi-Amritsar Highway.
By Rail : Tourists traveling to the city may reach Jalandhar by train, which arrives and departs from the station that is situated in the city. The railway terminus is connected by trains to the different corners of the country, including the major metropolis and towns of India.
The railway terminus at Jalandhar falls in the Delhi-Amritsar Railway Line. This route is mostly traversed by passenger trains and express trains that connect the city to the important cities like Kolkata, Mumbai, Jammu and Nagpur. Other than the express and the passenger trains, the city has regular local trains that arrive and depart from the railway terminus at Jalandhar. Travel to Jalandhar city becomes easier owing to the presence of the trains that travel from the different cities of the country to the city of Jalandhar.
By Bus : There is a vast network of bus services of Punjab, Himachal & Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh (160 km), U.P., Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators.
By Air : There is no airport in Jalandhar. The nearest airport is Raja Sansi airport in Amritsar, 80 km away.
Devi Talab Mandir : Devi Talab Mandir is located about one km from the railway station. The old Devi Talab has been renovated and in its centre, a new temple has been built. Recently a model of Amarnath Yatra has been built in the premises. An old temple of goddess Kali also stands by the side of the Devi Talab. The gilded Mandir is famous for the 'Hariballabh Sangeet Sammelan' held every year in December at its precincts for the past 125 years.
Tulsi Mandir : An ancient monument in the City is the temple of Vrinda, wife of Jalandhara, in the Kot Kishan Chand locality. It is now also known as Tulsi Mandir. On one side of the temple is a tank, which is said to have been the bathing place of the demon Jalandhar. At some distance is the temple of Gupha, with the image of Annapurna, the goddess of plenty, is installed in it. Also nearby lie the Brahm Kund and some temples dedicated to Shiva. Near the Balmiki gate is the Sheetla Mandir, said to be as old as the City of Jalandhar. Within its premises are also two small old temples of Hanuman and Shiva.
Gurdwara Chhevin Patshahi : Guru Hargobind visited the city of Jalandhar during his tour of Doaba area. Gurdwara Chhevin Padshahi in Basti Shaikh, Jalandhar city, stands on the spot where Guruji granted interview to a Muslim holy saint popularly known as Shaikh Darvesh. The saint blindfolded his eyes so that he could swear before the Mughal authorities that he had not seen the Guru. The great Guru had in depth discussion with the Shaikh Darvesh about spiritual matters, which created good impact on the holy man.
Nawanshahar Nurmahal : Situated on the Lohian Khas Nakodar Ludhiana Line of the Northern Railway, Nurmahal is 20 KM from Phillaur and 13 KM from Nakodar. It is also connected with Phillaur and Nakodar by road, which runs parallel to the railway line. The town is also directly connected by road with Jalandhar (33 KM), is the district headquarter.
Lying on the old imperial road from Delhi to Lahore, Nurmahal is built on the site of an ancient town, as is testified by the large size of the bricks that have been dug up as well as by numerous coins found there. Sir Alexander Cunningham obtained one punch marked silver coin one copper piece of the satrap Rajubul and one of Mahipal of Delhi. The bricks are finger marked by three concentric semi circles with a dot in the centre. Nurmahal is said to have been built on the site of a town, called Kot Kalur or Kot Kahlur, which, according to Barkley, was a place of importance and is said to have been ruined about AD 1300 " by the oppression of the government of the day, the Hindus deserting it, and separate villages of Muhammadans taking the place of the old mohallas (wards)". But Cunningham thinks that this in an error due to misreading of the words ba-khitah phalor in the inscription over the western gateway of the serai.
Adampur : It is situated on the Jalandhar Hoshiarpur road 16 KM from Jalandhar. Tradition says that it was founded by Rahi, a Lit Jat, and was originally known Raipur Lit. Subsequently it came into the possession of Bhaun Jats, who sold it to Adam Khan, an Afghan of the Dhogri family, who renamed it after him, and by locating traders and cultivators greatly improved it. A fair, called Santon-ka-mela, is held here for one day, twice a year in January and August.
Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum, Khatkar Kalan : A museum at Khatkal Kalan, the native village of the great Martyr Sardar Bhagat Singh, was inaugurated on his 50th death anniversary. It was earlier in Jalandhar district, now became part of Nawanshahr district. To pay homage to the great revolutionary martyrs of the Punjab, who laid down their lives for the liberation of their motherland, all their memorable belongings are displayed here. The half burnt ashes of Sardar Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev including the blood soaked sand and blood stained newspaper in which their ashes were wrapped are preserved and exhibited in the museum. One page of the Lahore Conspirace Case's Judgement through which martyr Kartar Singh Sarabha was sentenced to death and on which Sardar Bhagat Singh put some notes is also exhibited in the museum. A copy of holy Gita having S. Bhagat Singh's signatures which was handed over to him in Lahore Jail, and his other personal belongings are displayed here. The painting of the revolutionaries and Gadrites who inspired S. Bhagat Singh to jump into the freedom struggle are also displayed in the museum. A big bronze statue in the memory of the great martyr installed in front of the museum remind us of his great deeds.
Visit Rangla Punjab Haveli, Pushpa Gujral Science City.